Stop your Cat Spraying in the House

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. More here...

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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. More here...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Susan Westinghouse
Price: $37.00

Cat Language Bible

Cat Language Bible is a guide that helps you translate verbal and non-verbal cues to actual things that you understand as well as knowing how to respond in a more effective way to the cat's reactions. In addition, the guide will support you in efforts to understand your pet quite well, just like cats tend to understand the emotions we portray. The guide also helps one build a stronger and deeper bond with their furry friend. It will not only help in the communication aspect but also help in understanding what your pet dislikes about you or even your house. Jonas Jurgella, an Animal Behavior Specialist and researcher, came up with the Cat Language Bible with a view of helping individuals have a cat-human communication and it has been a great success. The not only comes in text form but also in some shots taken of the cats. These shots are of importance as they explain things that cats do and cannot be well understood if explained in text form. Purchase this amazing guide and perfectly connect with your cat. More here...

Cat Language Bible Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Jonas Jurgella
Official Website: catlanguagebible.com
Price: $17.00

Electrical basis of epilepsy

In fact, it was only about this time that Caton first discovered the EEG in rabbits, cats and monkeys (18). But it was not until 52 years later, in 1929, that Berger reported the discovery of the human EEG (19). This led rapidly to the confirmation that seizures were the result of electrical discharges in the brain, for example by Lennox at the 1935 Neurological Congress in London where he also finally laid to rest the still widely believed vascular theories of epilepsy (20).

Lectroph Ys1ology Of Sleep

It has been shown that spike-wave (SW) and other forms of seizures occur prevalently during sleep. One may wonder whether epileptic seizures develop from sleep oscillations or are triggered by independent causes and only appear superimposed over sleep activities. The initial observation that incidence of SW seizures increases during sleep in humans (Gibbs and Gibbs, 1947 Kellaway, 1950 Niedermeyer, 1965 Penry et al., 1971), monkeys (Steriade, 1974), and cats (Guberman and Gloor, 1974) suggests that sleep promotes epileptic behavior. To disclose the precipitating sleep factors, we start by presenting the structures playing a role during sleep. Then we summarize the cellular mechanisms underlying the stereotyped sleep patterns. Data mainly are derived from in vivo intraneuronal, intraglial, and field potential electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings performed on anesthetized cats. The extrapolation from anesthesia to sleep is based on extracellular and EEG recordings in chronically...

Slow Cortical Oscillations And Delta Waves

The slow oscillation has been recorded in cats under various anesthetics such as urethane, a mixture of ketamine and xylazine, and nitrous oxide in unanes-thetized cats with high brain stem transections (cerveau isol ) (Steriade et al., 1993c,d, 1994 Amzica and Steriade, 1995a) in humans anesthetized with halothane (Christopher Sheib, personal communication) and, importantly, in naturally sleeping cats (Steriade et al., 1996 Amzica and Steriade, 1998b) and humans (Steriade et al., 1993c Achermann and Borb ly, 1997 Amzica and Steriade, 1997). Explicit comparisons between anesthesia and natural sleep on the one hand (Steriade et al., 1996 Amzica and Steriade, 1998b) and between cats and humans on the other hand (Amzica and Steriade, 1997) were made.

The Need to Create a Model of Chronic Epilepsy Catastrophic Epilepsy

In the rat, infancy and childhood last a mere 5-week period until the onset of puberty. In cats (36) the process is slower and can be studied for months (with puberty arriving at 7-9 months). Although the developmental models of seizures and progressive epileptic state (kindling) may bear certain similarities to many therapy-responding epileptic seizures in childhood, there are no models of intractable childhood seizures (or catastrophic epilepsies of childhood, such as early infantile epilepsies or West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes). The available models of severe seizures that eventually express spontaneous seizures have an early developmental limit they do not occur if the inducing condition (status epilepticus) occurs before PN18 in the rat that is, later than the age corresponding (7, 9) to the ages of West and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in infants.

Evidence For Thalamic Participation In Seizures

One of the strongest evidences for the involvement of the thalamus was that in ferret thalamic slices, spindle oscillations can be transformed into slower and more synchronized oscillations at 3 Hz following blockade of GABAa receptors (Figure 13.2 von Krosigk et al., 1993). This behavior is similar to the transformation of spindles to spike-and-wave discharges in cats following the systemic administration of penicillin, which acts as a weak GABAa receptor antagonist (Kostopoulos et al., 1981a, 1981b). Moreover, like spike-and-wave seizures in rats, the 3Hz paroxysmal oscillations in thalamic slices are suppressed by GABAb receptor antagonists (Figure 13.2 von Krosigk et al., 1993).

Evidence For Cortical Mechanisms In Spikeandwave Generation

As we have seen above, spike-and-wave seizures disappear following thalamic lesions or by inactivating the thalamus (Pellegrini et al., 1979 Avoli and Gloor, 1981 Vergnes and Marescaux, 1992). In some experiments, however, a purely cortical spike-and-wave activity was observed in the isolated cortex or athalamic preparations in cats (Marcus and Watson, 1966 Pellegrini et al., 1979 Steriade and Contreras, 1998). These experiments revealed a slow type of spike-and-wave (1-2 Hz), with a less prominent 'spike' component. In contrast, such intracortical spike-and-wave activity does not occur in rats (Vergnes and Marescaux, 1992) and has never been reported in neocortical slices. Nevertheless, the experiments in cats show that at least some cortical structures are capable of endogenously generating spike-and-wave activity and further confirm the importance of the cortex in generating seizures, although the typical spike-and-wave patterns of generalized seizures require both cortex and...

Genesis Of Cortical Spikeandwave Oscillations

Intracortically-generated spike-and-wave seizures were described experimentally in cats under barbiturate anesthesia using multisite field potential recordings (Steriade and Contreras, 1998 Destexhe et al., 2001 see scheme in Figure 13.8A). In control conditions, the LFPs displayed 7-14 Hz spindle oscillations, typical of barbiturate anesthesia (Figure 13.8B). After application of the GABAa antagonist bicuculline to the cortex, this activity developed into seizures with spike-and-wave complexes, at a frequency of 2 Hz (Figure 13.8C). Experiments were also realized in athalamic cats, where a complete thalamectomy was performed (histological controls described in Steriade and Contreras, 1998). Similar to above, application of bicuculline to the cerebral cortex after thalamectomy led to the development of seizures with spike-and-wave patterns (Figure 13.8D). In this case, however, the morphology of the spike-wave complexes was different as the negative 'spike' was less pronounced...

Inconsistencies Of The Model And Open Questions

A number of experimental observations are not consistent with the present model. First, an apparent intact cortical inhibition was reported in cats treated with penicillin (Kostopoulos et al., 1983). However, this study did not distinguish between GABAa and GABAb-mediated inhibition. In the present model, even when GABAa was antagonized, IPSPs remained of approximately the same size because cortical interneurons fired stronger discharges (see Figure 13.12C) and led to stronger GABAb currents. There was a compensation effect between GABAa and GABAb-mediated IPSPs (not shown), which may lead to an apparent preservation of cortical inhibition. Indeed, an impaired intracortical inhibition was reported in the WAG Rij genetic model of absence epilepsy in rats (Luhmann et al., 1995).

Longterm Effect Of Deafferentation In Vivo

Following cortical undercut, the first seizures started 2-3 hours after the knife penetration (see above). One of the experimental artifacts that could contribute to the development of these seizures is the presence of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. This type of anesthesia elicits paroxysmal activities in about 30 of cats (Steriade et al., 1998) and these seizures were present in over 40 of cats with acute undercut (Topolnik et al., 2003a). In chronic experiments, in which the synchronizing patterns of paroxysmal activities were studied for a period from 3 days to 5 weeks, the paroxysmal discharges were present in virtually all cats (Nita et al., 2006b). In order to avoid the influence of this anesthesia on development of paroxysmal activities, we performed experiments with chronic undercut and the recordings were performed from non-anesthetized, head restrained cats. Multisite electrographic recordings revealed the presence of electrographic paroxysmal discharges in all experimental...

Psychological therapies to reduce seizure frequency

These are known as 'countermeasures' and various different approaches have been attempted, including hypnosis, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, operant or classical conditioning, and changing arousal levels. Stress reduction techniques of various types are very commonly employed in epilepsy, and have undoubted benefit, although there are few controlled studies in this important area. There is a report of hypnosis that reduced Jacksonian seizures on one patient from 35 to 5 per week. Meditation (of various forms) and yoga (and similar techniques) are commonly employed by patients with epilepsy, and have an enthusiastic following. There is at least one open study of meditation that showed a moderate benefit in reducing seizures and also changes in EEG parameters. Similarly, relaxation methods are widely practised and there are at least four controlled studies that show benefit. In one study a 29 decrease in the frequency of seizures occurred in those trained in progressive muscular...

Summary And Conclusion

The role of the thalamus in absence seizures remains incompletely understood. Steriade and Contreras (1995) found that 40 of thalamocortical neurons discharge spike-bursts in close relation to those in depth cortical recordings. Moreover, these spikes progressed to full synchrony as the seizure progressed. Steriade and Contreras (1998) described 3 Hz spike-wave seizures following thalamectomy but they noted that these did not have the same global (cortex-wide) properties as those when the thalamus was intact, nor did they have the classic absence waveform (cf. Figures 4 and 10 of their paper). Whereas such data were acquired from fully anesthetized cats, PET (Prevett et al., 1995) and fMRI (Aghakhani et al., 2004) studies from human subjects with 'naturally occurring' absence epilepsy show involvement of the thalamus during absence seizures. Meeren et al. (2002) found that cortical and thalamic sites interact bidirectionally during seizures in a rat genetic model of absence epilepsy....

Time Distributions Of Paroxysmal Events

Investigations of the primary abnormalities underlying non-convulsive generalized seizures in GAERS rats revealed, among others, an impairment of GABA-mediated transmission in the neocortex (Avanzini et al., 1996). Similarly, the cortical hyperexcitability in WAG Rij rats was demonstrated to be due to a decrease in GABA-mediated inhibition (Luhmann et al., 1995). Injection of GABAa antagonists such as penicillin or bicuculline to the cortex produced SWD discharges in cats (Gloor et al., 1990 Steriade and Contreras, 1998). Powerful control of cortical excitability by intracortical GABAA inhibition was also demonstrated in vivo and in a modeling study by Contreras et al. (1997).

Changes In The Extracellular Milieu And Epileptogenesis

In vivo measurement with potassium-selective microelectrodes have established that K+ o is modulated in an activity-dependent way. Visual stimulation and electrical activation of afferent pathways transiently increased K+ o in cat lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (Singer and Lux, 1973). Paired K+ o and extracellular single unit recordings in cat striate cortex showed tight correlations (Singer and Lux, 1975). In cat somatosensory cortex, moving a brush across the contralateral forepaw increased K+ o (Heinemann et al., 1977). A number of studies consistently showed that K+ o changes dramatically during epileptic activity in cortex and spinal cord. Dual neuron-glia intracellular recordings from cortical suprasylvian association areas 5 and 7 of cats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia revealed phasic negative events in glial membrane potential that were related to the onset of the paroxysmal depolarizing shifts in neurons (Amzica and Steriade, 2000). Although early studies used...

Brain Mechanisms in Combined RBDExtrapyramidal Disorders

The retrorubral nucleus is located near the substantia nigra, and appears to be implicated in the linked PD-RBD pathology (Lai and Siegel, 1990). The retrorubral nucleus projects to the caudate and putamen (extrapyramidal motor system) experimental lesions to the retrorubral nucleus in cats releases abnormal motor activity during both sleep and wakefulness, ranging from myoclonic twitches to rhythmic leg movements and locomotion (Lai and Siegel, 1997). In addition, the substantia nigra also is closely connected to the REM-phasic generator circuitry and may play a major role in the genesis of PGO waves, a characteristic REM sleep phasic event (Datta et al, 1991). In regard to MSA, pontine involvement has been revealed by both gross neuropathological examination and histo-chemical studies, as cited by Plazzi et al. (1997). Functional magnetic resonance brain imaging studies and postmortem brain analyses are required to definitively elucidate the underlying neuropathology...

Pathophysiology Of Cataplexy

The spinal cord, especially the ventrolateral funiculus corresponding to the ventrolateral reticulo spinal tract, inhibit muscle atonia. Because there is a strong analogy in man and dog between cataplexy and the muscle atonia seen during normal REM sleep, it may be that similar final pathways are involved. Siegel (1985) has shown in the cat, using transection experiments and cellular unit activity recordings, that pontine and medullary mechanisms are needed to produce muscle atonia. If transection is made at the pontomedullary junction, no muscle atonia is seen, while in midbrain decerebrate cats, complete bilateral inhibition of the antigravity muscles is seen. Therefore, pontine mechanisms contribute to medullary induction of atonia.

Genetic Models of Absence Epilepsy in the

Because typical absence epilepsies mainly affect children and teenagers and have moderate consequences, studies of their pathophysiological mechanisms cannot be conducted in humans for ethical reasons. Therefore, animal models are mandatory to understand this form of epilepsy and the mechanisms underlying the generation and control of SWD. Models displaying electrical, behavioral and pharmacologic characteristics of absence seizures have been used in rodents, cats or primates by injection of pentylenetetrazol, penicillin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate or GABA agonists (see Chapter 10). However, although these models have contributed to our understanding of SWD generation, the lack of recurrence of the seizures does not allow us to study the development of the disease.

Insights Into Human Disorders

Neurophysiologic experiments in either the GAERS or the WAG Rij animal models have clearly implicated the coupling of thalamic oscillations and cortical rhythms as the cause of SWDs. This is partly in agreement with the previous hypothesis proposed from data collected from cats, in which SWDs were elicited by injection of penicillin (see Gloor, 1968). Early accumulated data suggest a predominant role of the thalamic neurons in the generation of SWD (Danober et al., 1998). In addition, multisite recordings have provided evidence for a critical role of the sensorimotor cortex (Meeren et al., 2002).

Thalamocortical Loop Mechanism For Absence Seizures

The mechanism proposed for absence seizures can be summarized as follows. During sleep spindles, the oscillation is generated by intrathalamic interactions (TC-RE loops) and is reinforced by thalamocortical loops, as suggested in a previous model (Destexhe et al., 1998a). The combined action of intrathalamic and thalamocortical loops provides RE cells with moderate excitation, which evokes GABAA-mediated IPSPs in TC cells and sets the frequency to 10Hz. During spike-and-wave seizures, due to increased cortical excitability, corticothalamic feedback becomes strong enough to force prolonged burst discharges in RE cells which, in turn, evoke IPSPs in TC cells dominated by the GABAb component. In this case, the prolonged inhibition sets the frequency to Hz and the oscillation is generated by a thalamocortical loop in which the thalamus is intact (see details in Destexhe, 1998). Therefore, if the cortex is inactivated during spike-and-wave, this model predicts that the thalamus should...

Cortical Versus Thalamocortical Seizures

Figure 13.19 Comparison of the morphology of spike-and-wave complexes in experiments and models. (A) EEG during a human absence seizure. Same data as in Figure 13.1, replotted at higher resolution. (B) Local field potential (LFP) measurements in cats in two different experimental models of spike-and-wave seizures following cortical injection of bicuculline. Top seizure obtained in the intact thalamocortical system Bottom seizure in athalamic cat (data replotted from Figure 13.8B and C, respectively). (C) Simulated LFPs in models of spike-and-wave seizures. Top thalamocortical model (replotted from Figure 13.12) Bottom intracortical model (replotted from Figure 13.10). In each case, the spikes and the waves are indicated (see original figures for references).

Cortical Origin Of Paroxysmal Oscillations Generated Within The Thalamocortical System

Pyramidal Cells

The origin of seizures that accompany various types of epileptic activities is unclear. Here we focus on neocortical seizures. The etiologies of epilepsies with cortical seizures include cortical dysplasia, traumatic injury and other idiopathic causes (Stafstrom, 2005). Anesthetized or naturally sleeping and awake cats exhibit seizures with transitions between periods of spike-wave complexes (2-3 Hz) and fast runs (10-15 Hz) (Steriade and Contreras, 1995 Steriade et al., 1998 Timofeev and Steriade, 2004). Similar transitions are observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe epileptic encephalopathy with neocortical seizures characterized by epochs of both slow spike or polyspike waves (SW PSW) at 1.5-2.5 Hz and 10-20 Hz paroxysmal fast activity (Niedermeyer, 2002 Markand, 2003). Usually, the SW-PSW complexes of electrographic seizures correspond to clonic components of seizure, while the runs of fast spikes correspond to tonic...

Possible anatomic substrates of some behavioural disturbances associated with epilepsy

In cats, kindling of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area of the brain stem, which projects to the nucleus accumbens of the basal forebrain, does not produce seizures, but alters behaviour in a way that has been interpreted to resemble aspects of schizophrenia (Stevens, 1973). The nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmen-tal area both receive input from the mesial temporal limbic system, and are thus subject to kindling-like afferent input from seizures originating from the hippocampus or perihippocampal regions. An enduring effect of limbic seizures on dopaminergic function has been demonstrated experimentally by the fact that amygdala kindling in cats enhances methamphetamine-induced stereotypy, suggesting upregulation of DA receptors (Sato, 1983), although the location of these receptors has not been identified. Kindling is known to induce postictal hyperreactivity (which has been mistaken for aggression), as well as other postictal behaviours which can all be modulated by...

Delta Oscillations

Earlier results in which delta oscillations survived in isolated cortex (Frost et al., 1966 Kellaway et al., 1966) or in athalamic cats (Villablanca and Salinas-Zeballos, 1972 Villablanca, 1974) pointed toward a cortical origin of these activities. Moreover, Ball et al. (1977) showed that delta waves arise between cortical layers 2 to 3 and 5, and that cortical neurons showed a high probability of discharge during the positive phase of the surface waves. range. This oscillation was initially described in vitro in lateral geniculate (LG) neurons of rodents (McCormick and Pape, 1990 Leresche et al., 1991), and in vivo in motor, sensory, association, and intralaminar thalamic nuclei of cats (Ste-riade et al., 1991b Curro Dossi et al., 1992). This oscillation is generated as the result of an interplay between two currents of thalamocortical cells the low-threshold transient Ca2+ current (7t) and the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (7h) (Fig. 2.2A) (McCormick and Pape, 1990...

Anatomy

Studies in cats have shown that the vagus nerve consists of 80 afferent fibres, projecting from the viscera to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) 18 . Afferent fibres provide parasympathetic innervation to the lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tract and also innervate the voluntary muscles in the larynx and pharynx. There is an asymmetrical innervation to the heart, with the right vagus nerve (VN) innervating the sinoatrial node and the left innervating the atrioventricular node, at least in dogs. In dogs, when the right VN is stimulated, bradycardia is elicited more so than when the left VN is stimulated 19 . This is the rationale for implanting the VNS on the left side of the neck and not the right side. There are, however, some reports of successful stimulation of the right vagus nerve in humans 20 . Afferent fibres from receptors in the lungs, heart, aorta, gastrointestinal tract and aortic chemoreceptors, as well as a small group of afferent fibres from the concha of the ear,...

Phasic Event Arousal

Phasic events of sleep are thought to reflect aborted arousals related to brain stem processing of intrinsic stimulation and can be provoked by extrinsic stimulation, such as a loud sound (e.g., Morrison, 1979). We verified that exogenous stimulation, including a random loud sound (Fig. 3.3) and photic stimulation (20 per second Fig. 3.4), not only can evoke phasic events in cats but also can precipitate GTCs in spontaneously epileptic, kindled cats (Shouse et al., 1995). The most vulnerable periods for extrinic stimulus-evoked GTCs are those in which spontaneous seizures most frequently occur, notably in SWS and in the transition into REM (Shouse et al., 1990a,b). The least vulnerable time for evoked seizure activity is REM sleep, even though spontaneous phasic activity and focal EEG seizure discharge persist at this time and may be evoked by photic stimulation. Figure 3.5 shows that the same photic stimulation protocol (20 per second) can elicit epileptiform phasic events that...

Spindles

Spindles are generated within the thalamus, but their shape and synchronization are influenced by the cerebral cortex. Morison and Bassett (1945) were the first to demonstrate that spindles survive in the thalamus of cats after total decortication and high brain stem transections. Most of the more recent knowledge about the electrophysiology of sleep spindles is derived from in vivo experiments on cat and in vitro experiments on ferret slices. These studies show the high resemblance between the shape and the incidence of spindles in humans and in previously mentioned species. In vivo studies have pointed to the RE nucleus of the thalamus as the pacemaker of spindle oscillations (Steriade et al., 1985, 1987). The term pacemaker implies three conditions the induction of a given phenomenon in a target structure by triggering the pacemaker, the absence of the phenomenon after lesion of the pacemaker, and the presence of the phenomenon in the isolated pacemaker. This is indeed what has...

Caas Craas

GHB is a GABA metabolite that occurs naturally in the mammalian brain (Roth and Giarman, 1969). After IP administration of GHB, a predictable sequence of electro-graphic and behavioral events occurs, mirroring generalized absence seizures. This phenomenon has been well described in cats, rats, and monkeys (Bearden et al., 1980 Godschalk et al., 1977 Snead et al., 1976, 1978a-c, 1980, 1988). When given IM to rodents, penicillin does not consistently produce bilaterally synchronous SWDs similar to that seen in cats. Rather, this drug produces multifocal spikes with only occasional bursts of bilaterally synchronous SWDs associated with a decrease in vigilance (Avoli, 1980). The penicillin model in rodents has not been as well characterized as the GHB and PTZ models and is of limited usefulness because of inconstant penetration of penicillin into the brain through the blood-brain barrier. This model,

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