Drugs Effective against Seizures at All Ages

Carbamazepine as well as AEDs that enhance GABAA-mediated inhibition, such as phenobarbital and ben-zodiazepines (i.e., clonazepam and midazolam) are approximately equipotent in both young and adult rats in several seizure models (316, 321-324). However, in PN12 rats in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, phenobarbital and carbamazepine can suppress tonic-clonic seizures and at the same time increase the incidence of clonic seizures (322, 323). This suggests that these drugs may have differential effects on various seizure types within a single model. Acute administration of phenobarbital prior to kainic acid inhibits clonic seizures in both PN12 and adult rats (321). However, chronic daily administration of phenobarbital after the kainic acid challenge may have more detrimental effects on memory, learning, and activity level than kainic acid-induced seizures per se (325).

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Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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