Carbamazepine as well as AEDs that enhance GABAA-mediated inhibition, such as phenobarbital and ben-zodiazepines (i.e., clonazepam and midazolam) are approximately equipotent in both young and adult rats in several seizure models (316, 321-324). However, in PN12 rats in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, phenobarbital and carbamazepine can suppress tonic-clonic seizures and at the same time increase the incidence of clonic seizures (322, 323). This suggests that these drugs may have differential effects on various seizure types within a single model. Acute administration of phenobarbital prior to kainic acid inhibits clonic seizures in both PN12 and adult rats (321). However, chronic daily administration of phenobarbital after the kainic acid challenge may have more detrimental effects on memory, learning, and activity level than kainic acid-induced seizures per se (325).
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