Pharmacokinetic properties of the antiepileptic drugs

Drug

Renal elimination Gabapentin Pregabalin Vigabatrin Metabolic elimination Carbamazepine Clobazam Clonazepam Diazepam Lamotrigine Lorazepam Phenytoin Tiagabine Valproic acid Metabolic and renal elimination Ethosuximide Felbamate Levetiracetam Oxcarbazepine Phenobarbital Topiramate Zonisamide

Absorption

Bioavailability

Protein bound

100%

2-4 1-2 varied

varied

75 90 85

94-99 50

30 0

40 50 20 50

Children require larger mg/kg doses?a

Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

How Effect of much? enzyme inducers?

50-100%

50-100%

50-100%

50-100%

50-100%

50-100%

No No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes a Approximately estimated based on available data . b Not known.

c Oxcarbazepine is a pro-drug . Pharmacokinetics in the data provided is for MHD, the active metabolite (see text)

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