Startleinduced epilepsy

Startle can precipitate seizures in susceptible persons, and occasionally is the only precipitant. Startle-induced seizures usually occur in patients with a frontal or central focus and usually in lesional epilepsy. The seizures usually take a form similar to a tonic seizure, and the EEG is commonly normal

Table 1.33 Tactics that can reduce the risk of television-induced seizures in susceptible individuals.

Use a small screen, or view screen from a distance, use a remote control for changing channels (thereby reducing the area of screen in the visual field) View the screen from an angle

Use a 100 Hz television screen, a non-interlaced computer screen with a high refresh rate or a liquid crystal display Close or cover one eye Keep the screen contrast and brightness low Avoid exposure when sleep deprived Avoid looking at a fixed flickering pattern Use polarizing glasses or shows rather non-specific changes. A susceptibility to startle is more common in late childhood and adolescence and may resolve as the patient get older. The most common stimulus is a loud noise, but touch, sudden movement or fright can also precipitate attacks. Startle-induced epilepsy must be differentiated from hyperekplexia, which has a very similar clinical form, but which is not a form of epilepsy. Treatment can be difficult although carbamazepine and the benzodiazepine drugs have been said at an anecdotal level to be most likely to control the attacks.

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Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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