The parasomnias and neurological disorders of sleep, such as narcolepsy, may be confused with epilepsy due to their paroxysmal nature. The difficulty in differentiating epileptic and nonepileptic events is compounded by the fact that paroxysmal nonepileptic sleep events are more common in children with epilepsy or learning disabilities than in the general childhood population (6). Sleep disorders remain a largely neglected and poorly understood area in pediatrics. However, with careful attention to the timing and semeiology of events and the use of video-EEG and nocturnal polysomnography, these conditions can be classified and distinguished from epileptic seizures (see also Chapter 16).
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