Home Remedies for Hyperglycemia
An MRI scan should be performed in all cases of epileptic encephalopathy. Approximately 75 of EIEE patients will be found to have a structural lesion on MRI scan . Most lesions will involve some type of cortical dysplasia such as lissen-cephaly, hemimegalencephaly, Aicardi syndrome, or focal cortical dysplasia On the other hand, patients with EME are unlikely to have a structural lesion on MRI They are, however, likely to have a metabolic disorder such as nonketotic hyperglycemia, propionic academia, methylmalonic academia, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction, or Menkes disease . Unfortunately, for purposes of differentiating the two syndromes, some patients with EME have structural lesions, rare patients with EIEE have metabolic disorders, and cryptogenic etiology occurs in both
The patient was seen in our hospital in May 1997 for evaluation of a few further similar episodes. A first EEG captured some slow spikes as well as a subclinical right temporal lobe seizure on a later, standard EEG whose interpretation was uncertain. Nonetheless, vigabatrin was added to valproate. The amnestic episodes were infrequent during the following 6 months (occurring about once every 2 months), and they happened during periods of normal or high blood glucose levels.
A complete physical examination should be conducted during the evaluation of patients with possible epilepsy. The examination can give clues to the presence of heart or any other systemic disease that could be implicated either in the generation of acute seizures or in secondary brain injury leading to chronic epilepsy. A detailed discussion of these entities is beyond the scope of this text, and only a few entities will be highlighted. The general appearance of the patient can suggest a state of dehydration or show diffuse edema, suggesting the presence of electrolyte abnormalities. This is important in poorer regions of the globe, where malnutrition can lead to severe electrolyte imbalance. A history of diabetes mel-litus should prompt a search for additional signs of dehydration that can accompany severe hyperglycemia. Arrhythmias, valvular disorders, or cardiac failure can all be sources of cardiac emboli that can lead to brain infarcts. Infarcts can occur without clinical...
The patient was seen in our hospital in May 1997 for evaluation of a few further similar episodes. A first EEG captured some slow spikes as well as a 'subclinical' right temporal lobe seizure on a later, standard EEG whose interpretation was uncertain. Nonetheless, vigabatrin was added to valproate. The amnestic episodes were infrequent during the following 6 months (occurring about once every 2 months), and they happened during periods of normal or high blood glucose levels.
Electrolyte imbalance, hypo- or hyper-glycemia, and other toxic metabolic insults may lead to or facilitate the occurrence of seizures. Correction of the underlying systemic insult is the most important therapeutic measure, and AEDs are usually not indicated in those without a history of unprovoked seizures. Prolonged periods of excessively hot temperatures as well as endemic parasitic disorders in developing countries frequently lead to dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea. In these situations, the possibility of electrolyte imbalance should be considered in epileptic patients with an otherwise unexplainable increase in seizure frequency.
Seizures can be classified based on etiologies and types. Etiologic classification includes provoked and unprovoked seizures. Provoked seizures are defined as seizures occurring in close temporal association with an acute systemic, metabolic, or toxic insult or with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult (7). Common causes of provoked seizures include metabolic disturbances such as hyponatremia, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia,
Diabetic women should be closely monitored to make sure their blood sugar levels are normal or near normal. If the maternal blood sugar rises too high, the increased sugar crossing into the placenta can result in a large, overdeveloped baby with defects or blood sugar level abnormalities. Having a large baby can also result in injuries during birth and increase the need for cesarean delivery or other assistance during delivery, such as forceps or vacuum delivery. Women who are diabetic may also suffer from a greater loss of some nutrients. It is important to maintain tight control of blood sugar before and during pregnancy. The risk of birth defects in newborn babies whose mothers have gestational diabetes is very low, because in most cases this type of diabetes develops after the 20th week of pregnancy, when the fetus is already fully developed. The risk increases only if you had undiagnosed diabetes before pregnancy, or if you have high, uncontrolled blood sugar levels during the...
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