Two of the most significant secondary benefits of VNS Therapy are the reduction in drug and dosage of AEDs without loss of seizure control80 and the cost benefits of VNS Therapy.81-83 Boon and colleagues82 reported a mean drop in hospital admission days (from 16 to 4 days/year) and a reduction in direct medical costs per patient.
Beneficial clinical effects beyond changes in seizure frequency have been observed. Malow and colleagues84 found that in 16 patients treatment with low stimulus intensities improved daytime sleepiness and promoted alertness. The use of VNS Therapy to reduce morbid obesity,85 86 improve memory,87 improve treatment-resistant depression^8 and to elevate mood59-91 have been reported. Pilot studies investigating the role of VNS Therapy for Alzheimer's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraine headaches, and anxiety disorders are underway.
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