Scars Holistic Treatments

Scar Solution By Sean Lowry

Scar Solution is a scientifically proven treatment that assists in fast scar removal naturally within months. It is effective in eliminating pitted acne scars, sunken scars and keloid scars. The author of this program is Sean Lowry, is a medical consultant and health researcher. Sean, some years ago suffered a skiing accident. This left ugly scars on her face which affected not only her skin but her whole life. This solution is complete natural which makes use of natural/ alternative cures aimed to eliminate and treat the root cause of scars. It does not advocate the use of medicines or drugs. Thus unlike medicines these remedies do not contain any chemicals capable of causing adverse side effects in the long run. Several factors determine the success rate of any plan for treating complex conditions like scar removal. There are chances that some users may get fast and positive results while others may not be so lucky. Best way to find out if this program will really work for you or not is to try it out first hand. Read more...

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal Summary

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Step Five Additional Investigations

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures the relative amounts of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline and creatine present in different regions of the brain and expresses the values as ratios. NAA is a neuronal compound that is reduced in gliotic scars, and choline and creatine are found in glia. Abnormal NAA choline and NAA creatine ratios are also associated with regions of abnormal metabolism and MTS, and have been shown to correlate with epileptogenic foci. In one study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging localized the EZ to the correct lobe (as defined by surface electroencephalography) in 65 of patients with neocortical epilepsy 63 .

Morbidity and Mortality

Epilepsy substantially increases mortality risk, particularly in environments that generally lack medical resources, including basic anti-convulsants, and have health care providers poorly trained to diagnose and treat neurologic disorders. The extreme social stigma associated with seizures in some cultures is particularly detrimental. Untreated individuals who have frequent seizures and live where open fires are used for cooking and heating often experience severe burns. Patients with epilepsy in some regions often exhibit scars from significant burns or fractures that occurred during seizure activity. In hospital-based observations in sub-Saharan Africa, such scars are evident in 30 of patients. Where water is collected from rivers or streams and fishing provides a significant

Treatment And Outcome

The patient underwent a left frontal resection at the age of 41. Scar tissue was found at surgery in the antero-inferior portion of the left frontal lobe. Seizures subsided for 6 months, but then simple and complex focal seizures recurred, although they were obviously less frequent and not as disabling as before.

Diagnostic approach

Most children with partial seizures and focal spikes on EEG require the higher spatial resolution of MRI to search for underlying structural abnormalities that may not be seen on CT These include scars or gliosis from a remote injury, brain tumors, arteriovenous malformations, and abnormalities of cortical development such as

Understanding Seizure Disorders

Summary Understanding Seizure Disorders, an 11-minute video produced by the Epilepsy Foundation of America, examines the human brain and uses testimonials from persons with epilepsy and videotapes of persons having seizures to explain epilepsy. Epilepsy is defined as seizures that are not related to an explained cause and which tend to recur over time in an unpredictable fashion. There are two types of seizures Generalized and partial. In a generalized seizure, the electrical disturbance affects the entire brain all at once. In a partial seizure, only one part of the brain is affected at the start the electrical disturbance may remain localized or spread throughout the brain. Partial seizures may be characterized by strange changes in sense of taste or smell or feeling of movement outside the body or back in time. Some people experience only one kind of seizure, while others experience several kinds. Doctors can attempt to determine the cause and treatment for seizures by (1) taking...

How could the development of personality disorders and their neuronal basis be explained

For epilepsy patients with personality disorders, the context of surgery itself is a stressful event. This may facilitate neuronal excitation in unusual directions. In addition, and supporting the escalating process, the surgical disconnection of temporal structures forces other parts of the brain to take over functions during the time of scarring and healing. Thus the postoperative period is a double delicate time-span, involving changes in the cerebral mechanisms of excitation and inhibition.

Examination And Investigations

The patient's physical examination was normal at his follow-up examination including his neurological examination, except for a tracheotomy scar. He was referred for additional video EEG monitoring. During the monitoring he had three seizures two were associated with auras, brief behavioral arrest, and confusion. During a third seizure, he had behavioral arrest followed by generalized tonic clonic movements. At seizure onset, he had high-voltage bi-frontal 3 5 per second polyspike and slow wave complexes, with spike amplitudes recorded maximally over the right frontal area. He also had a several-hour period during which he felt funny, but was fully responsive. During this time, he had frequent bi-frontal spike and wave bursts on EEG. Hyperventilation induced a complex partial seizure with behavioral arrest and brief bursts of 3 4 per second generalized spike and slow waves. Interictally, he had occasional right hemisphere polyspike-wave complexes.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Multiple Subpial Transection

Figure 5.23 Technique of multiple subpial transection. (a) After a tiny incision is created in the pia, a hook is inserted down one gyral edge. (b) It is then swept across the full width of the gyrus. (c) The hook is brought back to its starting point such that the tip is just visible under the pia as it crosses the gyrus. (d) The procedure is repeated at intervals of less than 5 mm along the gyrus leaving thin but visible scars. Thus, the transverse fibres only are sectioned, preserving the columnar organization. Figure 5.23 Technique of multiple subpial transection. (a) After a tiny incision is created in the pia, a hook is inserted down one gyral edge. (b) It is then swept across the full width of the gyrus. (c) The hook is brought back to its starting point such that the tip is just visible under the pia as it crosses the gyrus. (d) The procedure is repeated at intervals of less than 5 mm along the gyrus leaving thin but visible scars. Thus, the transverse fibres only are...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Temporal Lobe Scar

As we have discussed when reviewing the pathology of TLE with HS above, HS must be thought of as damage to the formed hippocampus (156). Pathologically it consists of loss of normal tissue (neuron loss and macroscopic atrophy) and gliosis and reorganization. In other words, it is a scar that appears to have occurred after the hippocampus was formed. Whether the event that caused this damage occurred in utero (making HS a 'developmental lesion') or after birth (an 'acquired lesion') is largely a semantic rather than an etio-logic argument. A similar pattern of 'damage' can be induced in a range of animal models and human disease from a variety of stimuli that can be considered to be neurotoxic.

Sensorimotor Cortex Model

The central sulcus of either adult or adolescent monkeys is exposed through a frontal craniotomy under general anesthetic, taking great care not to damage the cortex. After opening the dura, the hand-face region of the sensorimotor cortex is identified with cortical stimulation and injected with alumina gel. Although different injection patterns have been used, one of the most successful is the Ward modification of the Kopeloff technique (Bakay and Harms, 1981). In this method, two injections are made 4mm apart in the precentral gyrus and two injections in the postcentral gyrus, paralleling each other. A 27-gauge needle is used for the injection, which is placed into the cortex to a depth of approximately 4 mm. A volume of 0.1ml of aluminum hydroxide (fully saturated solution) in the form of alumina gel is injected at each site. Each injection is made quite slowly to allow time for volume equilibrium to be reached before removing the needle. In general an injection under the pia is...

Cerebral Palsy

Epilepsies occur in 34-60 , and tend to be partial, arising from scar tissue around the damaged area. The middle cerebral artery supplies the lateral cortex of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, including the sensorimotor cortex, but not the occipital or inferior temporal cortex, which are supplied by the posterior cerebral artery, and the resultant localization-related epilepsy reflects the distribution of the artery concerned.

Figure 510

Histopathology of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). All panels are from sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. (A) Extensive cystic cavitation (gyrus at left, arrowheads) and extreme laminar necrosis (gyrus at right, arrows) in a resection specimen from a severely affected child. (B) Large cortical scar, seen in the center of this image, running vertically. (C) Perivascular inflammation by mononuclear inflammatory cells (arrows), accentuated in one part of the vessel wall. (D) Patchy meningeal inflammation (arrows) by mononuclear inflammatory cells. severe cortical degeneration and gliosis. In stage 4 there is profound cortical atrophy with gliosis and vacuola-tion of the neuropil, with cystic cavitation in many cases (Figure 5-10). Frequently, areas of relative cortical normality surround zones of badly scarred cortex. This geographically defined severe pathologic change, often seen a few micrometers away from relatively normal brain parenchyma, means that a negative brain biopsy...

Conclusion

Epilepsy has been known for many centuries. Remarkable advancement on different aspects of this disorder has helped in reducing the associated physical agony to a considerable degree. However, scientific advancements have not yet succeeded in penetrating and eradicating the deep-rooted myths, misconceptions, superstitions and stigma which go hand in hand with epilepsy resulting in enhanced physical, psychological and social scarring, thus multiplying the sufferings of the patient. Bringing 'epilepsy out of the shadows' should be the goal of all concerned health care personnel in the new millennium. This is only possible by public awareness health education to the masses.

Inspection

Inspection is the key step in the diagnostic evaluation as certain findings burn scars and amputations can give a clue to the epileptic nature of seizures. In developing countries due to high usage of unattended open fires, patients with epilepsy are at a higher risk of burns. Burns from falling into domestic fires are very common. When a patient with epilepsy falls into a fire or on a hot object he may be deserted by the entourage (Fig. 1). In India forehead of a child with febrile seizures is often burnt with a belief that it will prevent further seizures or such phenomenon. Burn scars can identify a patient with epilepsy, in Ethiopia of the 316 patients with epilepsy studied, 8.5 had burn scars.12 Epilepsy related burns account for a significant proportion of admissions, 24 18336 - 11 ,37 to the hospitals in developing countries and is a major cause of mortality.38 In certain cultures, burn scar has grave implication the subject with burns is considered incurable.3 Figure 1....

Causes Of Epilepsy

Broadly, epilepsy can be categorized on the basis of etiology (Figure 7-1) as symptomatic (a clear etiology can be demonstrated, such as a tumor, cortical dysplasia, or scarring), cryptogenic (a cause is suspected on the basis of associated neurologic features but remains hidden), or idiopathic (the individual appears to be normal on neurologic assessment, and no cause other than a hereditary predisposition established). Etiologies in the symptomatic category can be attributed to chromosomal aberrations (Angelman syndrome, Wolff-Hirschhorn syndrome) or single-gene defects for conditions such as tuberous sclerosis or lissencephaly.

Head trauma

Head trauma is an important cause of epilepsy. The occurrence of epilepsy after head injury depends on the severity of the trauma and the area of the brain that is affected. The kinetic energy imparted to the brain tissue produces pressure waves which disrupt tissue and lead to histopathological changes, including gliosis, axon retraction balls, wallerian degeneration, neurological scars and cystic white matter lesions. In addition, iron liberated from haemoglobin generates free radicals that disrupt cell membranes and have been implicated in post-traumatic epileptogenesis 61 . Iron and other compounds have also been found to provoke intracellular calcium oscillations.

Figure 1312

MR spectroscopy has a role in the differentiation of high-grade tumors, in which choline is typically elevated relative to NAA and Cr, as compared to metabolic disorders, ischemia, and glial scarring. Other MR spectroscopy applications include metabolic disorders, stroke, hypoxia and monitoring gene therapy however, this discussion focuses on its application in the study and localization of epileptogenic cortex.

Pathophysiology

LPTS have been attributed to different neurobiological processes, including delayed cell death, excitatory-inhibitory imbalance, toxic effects of hemosiderin deposition, and chronic astrogliosis scarring Although no antiepileptogenic agents have yet been proven clinically effective, these processes serve as potential future targets for therapies designed to prevent the development of LPTS PTE Inflammation Delayed cell death transmitter release Gliosis and scarring

Seizure Sequelae

Seizure sequelae can represent either neurologic deficits provoked by acute neuronal exhaustion and other neurochemical changes depressing neuronal function, or injuries sustained during the actual or previous seizures. Scars may offer evidence of previous seizure-related injuries. The presence of scars probably indicates the need to improve seizure control. Scar identification offers an opportunity to educate the patient and his or her relatives about measures to avoid further similar injuries. For example, the patient should be instructed to stay away from open fires, at least until seizures are reliably controlled. Other preventive measures are dealt with in Chapter 8. Some patients may experience protracted post-ictal behavior abnormalities, including aggressiveness, irritability, or overt depression. The identification of these motor and cognitive abnormalities assists relatives in understanding the nature of these abnormalities, may decrease the tendency of family to blame the...

Fabrication

Mea Fabrication

Our MEAs are constructed in conjunction with Thin Films Technology, Inc. (Buellton, CA). The multisite MEAs are mass fabricated using photolithographic methods, as this technique routinely produces recording surfaces microns in size, greatly improving the spatial resolution as compared to microdialysis. Details of the fabrication process are outlined in Burmeister et al. (2001). Briefly, photolithography helps decrease overall production costs as multiple MEAs can be fabricated with minimal starting material waste. Cost is an ever-present concern for research instrumentation as well as clinical diagnostic and treatment technologies. We currently pattern our Pt recording arrays onto a ceramic substrate (Coors Superstrate 996 (alumina, Al2O3) Coors Ceramics, Golden, CO), which provides a strong, non-flexible base for precise stereotaxic placement, minimizes cross-talk noise between Pt recording sites, can be polished to achieve MEAs as thin as 37.5 m and has demonstrated excellent...

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

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