Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

Phobia Release Program

The curative methods that are described in the 5-Day Phobia Release Course are psychologically proven and are vouched for by many phobic patients, who no longer feel the fear. Each technique is something that you can perform them on your own. Each technique is easy, described in plain, ordinary English and requires no more than a couple of minutes to do. In all, the course contains 9 exercises, organized into 5 days for your convenience. You also receive some background information about Neuro-Linguistic Programming and references for further reading on Nlp if you are interested in learning more.

Phobia Release Program Summary


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Ptsd And Fast Phobia Relief Self-help Audio Program

This audio home study program was developed by Robert Mantell, the founder and executive director of BrightLife Phobia And Anxiety Release Center. With this audio program, you'll get 3 full-length CDs and more than 180 minutes of revolutionary mental repatterning tools, strategies and techniques. You'll learn the basics about fear and anxiety, how to neutralize past fears and how to condition yourself for success and self-confidence. How to Free Yourself from Trauma, Phobias And Anxiety in 7 Days Or Less! introduces Imagination Creation Accelerated Personal Breakthrough Technology that will lead to quick and easy relief. Free yourself from anxiety, fears, phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (Ptsd) with the help of How to Free Yourself from Trauma, Phobias And Anxiety in 7 Days Or Less!

Ptsd And Fast Phobia Relief Selfhelp Audio Program Summary

Contents: MP3 Audios
Creator: Robert Mantell
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Price: $137.00

Interictal Anxiety Disorders

As stated above, anxiety disorders are a common co-morbidity in PWE. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are the most frequent types of anxiety disorders identified in PWE 1 . The DSM-IV classification of anxiety disorders lists six other types agoraphobia without panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder. These may also be identified in PWE, but with a much lower frequency. In addition, PWE may often exhibit symptoms of anxiety that fail to meet any DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a categorical anxiety disorder.

Nonepileptic seizures and dissociation

Several converging lines of evidence indicate that these events involve a dissociative psychological mechanism (see Kuyk et al., 1997). In the first instance, nonepi-leptic seizures are commonly found in the context of other forms of dissociative psychopathology. Bowman (1993) and Bowman and Markand (1996) found that the vast majority of individuals with nonepileptic attacks meet criteria for DSM-IV dissociative disorders such as dissociative amnesia, identity disturbance and depersonalization. Post-traumatic stress disorder, commonly assumed to involve a dissociative mechanism, was also particularly common in this group of patients (Bowman, 1993 Bowman and Markand, 1996). Other studies have found that nonepileptic seizures frequently occur alongside other unexplained physical symptoms (Krishnamoorthy et al., 2001 Meierkord et al., 1991), suggesting that they may be one aspect of a broader tendency to express psychological distress somatically, so-called 'somatization' (Lipowski,...

Questions of indication and contraindication

One particular impediment to recognizing the indication for psychotherapy is found in those underdiagnosed cases in which an epilepsy is accompanied by a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Rosenberg et al., 2000). This does not just mean cases involving exceptionally violent biographical experiences. Recurrent severe seizures themselves may represent a directly traumatic experience in a stricter sense, particularly when - as in many frontal epilepsies - the patient retains a considerable degree of consciousness. Several of the characteristics of PTSD mentioned in DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) such as the 'numbing of general responsivity, constriction of affect, re-experiencing the traumatic event or an exaggerated startle response' can be considered characteristic of many epilepsies as well. This makes it all the more surprising that so little research has focused on the potentially traumatizing character of seizures. One reason for this may be the well-known fact...

Movement control structure

The neodissociative model of hypnotic behaviours also provides the basis for an account of more pathological phenomena such as dissociative amnesia, fugue and multiple personality disorder (Kihlstrom, 1994 Spiegel and Cardena, 1991). According to such a view, the formation of amnesic barriers within the executive ego is a common defensive response in the face of trauma. These barriers serve an adaptive function in that they protect the individual from experiencing potentially overwhelming negative affect associated with the traumatic event. However, pathological dissociative amnesia can arise if the barrier within the executive ego endures to the point where the memory loss itself becomes distressing or debilitating. In the case of dissociative fugue, the amnesic barrier conceals large tracts of autobiographical memory as well as the traumatic events themselves. Without access to this autobiographical information, the fugue sufferer not only reports amnesia but also a profound loss of...

Anxiety And Depression In The General Population

Based on the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication in the United States, lifetime prevalence rates for depressive disorders is 20.8 with major depression being the most prevalent (16.6 ), and lifetime anxiety disorders identified in 28.8 with specific phobia (12.5 ) and social phobia (12.1 ) as the most commonly occurring anxiety disorders (Kessler et al., 2005a, b). Additionally, the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project included representative samples from six European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain). This project reported lower prevalence rates of depressive disorders (14.0 ), major depression (12.8 ), anxiety disorders (13.6 ), specific phobia (7.7 ), and social phobia (2.4 ) (Alonso et al., 2004b) . These studies confirm what is considered common knowledge individuals with epilepsy likely have higher prevalence rates of depression and anxiety disorders compared to the general population.

Conversion Disorder

The episodes may crudely mimic epileptic seizures and have some resemblance to certain frontal lobe epileptic seizures but often have prominent sexual and aggressive components. They are usually recognized readily by observation and particularly by videotape observation and do not include alteration in background EEG. Some are predominantly swoons a more or less graceful collapse without injury often into a recovery position, in some rhythmic jerking of the head, one or more limbs or trunk or thrusting of the pelvis predominates. Rolling from side to side with eyes closed is often seen, a feature not characteristic of an epileptic seizure. Rapid symmetrical jerking may stop suddenly in contrast to the gradual slowing in frequency seen in a generalized clonic epileptic seizure. In some cases incest, sexual abuse, or other cause of posttraumatic stress disorder may be the etiology.i2,43 The possibility of nonepileptic seizures in an individual with true...

Head trauma

In the civilian population, traumatic events provoking concussion as defined by either loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia but no evidence of tissue disruption, usually are not followed by epilepsy 62 . The risk for seizures tends to increase according to the severity of traumatic brain injury (Table 4.8). Five years after concussion, the cumulative probability of post-traumatic epilepsy is 0.7 after mild injuries, 1.2 after moderate injuries and 10 after severe injuries. The excessive risk is highest during the first year and diminishes during the ensuing years. After 10 years, only severe injuries still exhibit an increased risk of seizures. The 30-year cumulative incidence of seizures is 2.1 formild injuries, 4.2 for moderate injuries and 16.7 for severe injuries. Compared to mild injuries, the risk of seizures after severe injuries is 30 times higher during the first year and eight times higher by year 5. The highest risk of post-traumatic epilepsy occurs following...


The parasomnias refer to clinical disorders consisting of undesirable physical phenomena that occur predominantly during sleep (DCSC, 1990). They have been classified based on the stage of sleep from which they originate. They include both normal and abnormal phenomena. Included in the category of NREM parasomnias are hypnic jerks and hypnic imagery, considered to be normal, in addition to confusional arousals, sleep terrors (pavor nocturnus), and sleepwalking (somnambulism), referred to as disorders of arousal. These all originate from deep NREM sleep, stages 3 and 4. They are all common in childhood and decrease in frequency as age increases. These individuals tend to have a family history of similar disorders. REM parasomnias include nightmares and REM behavior disorder (RBD). A third group consists of disorders that may occur during any or all sleep stages and includes bruxism, enuresis, rhythmic movement disorder (including head-banging), sleep talking (somniloquy), and...